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Category: Investor Education

Top 3 Reasons For Every Trader To Use Market Depth

Top 3 Reasons For Every Trader To Use Market Depth

What is Market Depth (Level 2 Market Data)?


Market Depth (MD), also known as Level 2 Market Data displays the number of Buy orders and Sell orders of each price level of a particular listed security (eg. stocks or ETFs), up to 20 levels of pending orders on each Buy and Sell side. In simple terms, it shows the different price levels which buyers are willing to buy and sellers willing to sell at any given time where buyers are represented on the left and sellers represented on the right in the order book. MD is in real time and the orders shown changes constantly during pre-open session to market close.

MD information is available on all trading platforms upon subscription with your broker and it allows investors and traders to enhance trading decisions by checking stock liquidity, optimising buy / sell orders, and establishing price support / resistance.

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The Beginner’s Guide to Understanding The 3 Financial Statements

The Beginner’s Guide to Understanding The 3 Financial Statements

All listed companies on SGX are mandated to report their financial performance periodically. Every quarter, companies must report their financial performance using a structured set of 3 financial statements. The financial statements adhere to international accounting standards and the local Singapore reporting standards have very similar formats making it easy for investors to review.

40cb66be628343902b3f21fbe1989c5c_xlThis post first appeared on on 12-Dec-2017 and also on InvestingNote. It was written by our veteran community member, Tam Ging Wien, author of REITs to Riches: Everything You Need to Know About Investing Profitably in REITs.

We decided contribute to the InvestingNote community with an educational piece to demystify the 3 financial statements.

When read with begin with A…B…C…, when we sing with begin with Do… Re…Me…

That at least how the song lyrics go.

But when we want to understand and assess the financials of a stock, we need to begin with the 3 financial statements, namely:

  • Balance Sheet (or Statement of Financial Position)
  • Income Statement (or Profit/Loss Statement)
  • Cash Flow Statement

Financial statements are reported based on time periods. By reviewing the 3 financial statements, investors are able to deduce the financial position of the business and how its financials have changed over time.

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How To Catch Falling Knife Of Blue Chip Stocks Without Getting Sliced

How To Catch Falling Knife Of Blue Chip Stocks Without Getting Sliced

Catching Falling Knife Of Blue Chip Stocks In Singapore Without Getting Sliced

This post first appeared on InvestingNote and was written by our verified community member, Li Guang Sheng.


This weekend, I will be sharing my thoughts on catching falling knife blue chips like M1, Star Hub, SPH and Raffles Medical Group. Usually, for stocks that fall so much within a short period, there is a reason and usually is due to change in fundamentals such as profit, growth or potential future earnings look bleak. In my opinion, if a retail investor who hates to see paper losses should wait a bit more before burning their cash as analyst reports are usually negative on them hence funds are selling. There is no point in catching a falling knife for them as there is a possibility of further pain in such shares. Is better in my opinion for such retail investors to chase high and buy when fundamental improve than to bottom fish. There is no one size fits all investment strategy for all. For me, I prefer to bottom fish as there is more upside potential but the risk is paper losses in some counters when they continue to fall.

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5 things every investor needs to know about Bitcoin

5 things every investor needs to know about Bitcoin

Bitcoin: The world’s most famous and fastest-rising crypto-currency.


Just a few weeks ago, when China made the news by publicly announcing that Initial Coin Offerings (ICOs) are banned, Bitcoin’s price plunged more than 10%.

However, the price reaction to this news is nothing compared to the bull run since Bitcoin’s inception.

bitcoin price

So, what is Bitcoin really?

Bitcoin (BTC) is a type of cryptocurrency: Balances are kept using public and private “keys,” which are long strings of numbers and letters linked through the mathematical encryption algorithm that was used to create them. BTC was created by someone known by the pseudonym, Satoshi Nakamoto.

BTC uses ‘blockchain’ technology to facilitate instant payments and it really isn’t a physical coin.

1. What is Blockchain?

All Bitcoin transactions are recorded permanently on a distributed ledger called the “blockchain”. This ledger is then shared between all full Bitcoin “miners” and “nodes” around the world, and is publicly-viewable.


These miners and nodes verify transactions and keep the network secure. For the electricity they use to do this, miners are rewarded with new bitcoins with each 10-minute block (the reward is currently 12.5 BTC per block).

As blockchain technology allows digital information to be distributed but not copied, it created the backbone of a new type of internet.

Bitcoin follows the concepts set out in a white paper by Satoshi Nakamoto. It brings forth the possibility of lower transaction fees than traditional online payment mechanisms and is operated by a decentralized authority, unlike government-issued currencies.

The market cap for all bitcoin (abbreviated BTC or, less frequently, XBT) in circulation exceeds $7 billion today.

2. How do Bitcoins come about?

The independent individuals and companies who own the governing computing power and participate in the Bitcoin network, also known as “miners,” are motivated by rewards (the release of new bitcoin) and transaction fees paid in bitcoin.

bitcoin mining

Bitcoin mining is the processing of transactions on the Bitcoin network and securing them into the blockchain. Each set of transactions that are processed is a block. The block is secured by the miners. Miners do this by creating a hash that is created from the transactions in the block. This cryptographic hash is then added to the block. The next block of transactions will look to the previous block’s hash to verify it is legitimate. Then your miner will attempt to create a new block that contains current transactions and new hash before anyone else’s miner can do so.

These miners can be thought of as the decentralized authority enforcing the credibility of the Bitcoin network. New bitcoin is being released to the miners at a fixed, but periodically declining rate, such that the total supply of bitcoins approaches 21 million.

One bitcoin is divisible to eight decimal places (100 millionth of one bitcoin), and this smallest unit is referred to as a Satoshi. If necessary, and if the participating miners accept the change, Bitcoin could eventually be made divisible to even more decimal places.

3. Why Bitcoin (for some people)?

Bitcoin is a P2P Electronic Cash System and also a consensus network that enables a new payment system and a completely digitized money. It is the first decentralized P2P payment network that is powered by its users with no central authority or middlemen.

The beauty of Bitcoin is that it requires no central servers or third-party clearing houses to settle transactions – all payments are peer-to-peer and are settled in about 10 minutes – unlike credit card payments, which can take weeks or months before they’re finally settled.

So the key reasons why people use Bitcoin is simply because, it’s fast, cheap, safe and cannot be inflated.

safe bitcoin

Once bitcoins have been sent, they’re gone. A person who has sent bitcoins cannot try to retrieve them without the recipient’s consent. This makes it difficult to commit credit card identity fraud, in which people make a purchase and then contact the credit card company to make a chargeback, effectively reversing the transaction.

As most online purchases today are made via credit cards, online forms require people to enter all the confidential information into a web form. These details can easily be stolen.

The problem with regular fiat currency is that governments can print as much of it as they like, and they frequently do. If there are not enough US dollars to pay off the national debt, then the Federal Reserve can simply print more. If the economy is sputtering, then the government can take newly created money and inject it into the economy, via a much-publicised process known as quantitative easing. This causes the value of a currency to decrease.

Going Deeper Into The Subject….

Bitcoin is a relatively private currency. Although it is transparent – thanks to the blockchain, everyone knows how much a particular bitcoin address holds in transactions. They know where those transactions came from, and where they’re sent.

On the other hand, unlike conventional bank accounts, no one knows who holds a particular BTC address. It’s like having a clear plastic wallet with no visible owner. Everyone can look inside it, but no one knows whose it is. However, it’s worth pointing out that people who use bitcoin unwisely (such as always using the same bitcoin address, or combining coins from multiple addresses into a single address) risk making it easier to identify them online.

bank transfer

In a conventional banking system, different parties such as the bank, the payment processor and the merchant to handle your money properly along the way. They demand important, confidential pieces of information. Because bitcoin is entirely decentralized, no trust is needed in these parties. Each transaction is digitally signed and secure. An unknown miner will verify it, and then the transaction is completed. A payer’s identity is kept anonymous to the merchant.

There is no other electronic cash system in which your account isn’t owned by someone else. Take PayPal, for example: if the company decides for some reason that your account has been misused, it has the power to freeze all of the assets held in the account, without consulting you. It is then up to consumers to jump through whatever hoops are necessary to get it cleared, so that you can access your funds. With bitcoin, you own the private key and the corresponding public key that makes up a bitcoin address. No one can take that away from you (unless you lose it yourself, or host it with a web-based wallet service that loses it for you).

4. Is using Bitcoin as a currency viable?

Due to its volatile price fluctuations, Bitcoin is not suitable to be a currency. Unlike currencies like USD which is pegged to gold or silver, Bitcoin exists without a stable value. It is acting more like a commodity asset that can be traded, like gold or silver. Bitcoin buyers hope that its value will rise in order to yield a trading profit. The price of Bitcoin is purely controlled by supply and demand forces.


Imagine the scenario you were to use Bitcoin for your daily transactions. A simple cup of coffee or groceries could cost 10% more in just a single day due to price volatility.

5. Should you be investing in Bitcoin?

With high returns, come high risks.

Although bitcoin had a more than 100% return on investment in 2016, it’s also five times more volatile than the S&P 500.  – As quoted by Campbell Harvey, a professor of finance at Duke University.

CEO of JP Morgan, Jamie Dimon even said that Bitcoin is a fraud.

As a result of purely demand and supply forces, BTC buyers are actually speculators. Speculation exists in all markets, as the actions of speculators help to add market liquidity and to determine the market value of assets.

Value investing is about buying good companies at low prices. Without a strong fundamental basis for justifying its price, many value investors are likely to shun away from BTC as speculations is the key to its price increase.


Bitcoin is not a company and nobody know whether it is cheap. Although its fans will argue that the blockchain technology backing it will be the next phase of change in the financial world, nobody really knows the exact potential or feasibility that blockchain or Bitcoin has.

Therefore, it’s safe to say its price really is inflated but not exactly safe to invest.

The question investors should ask is: where is the real value?


If you like this article, we’ve got more. Here’s an invitation to join our community and network of investors who’re actively sharing. It’s free and most importantly, these investors are out to help one another to get better investing outcomes.


All research reports are of the analysts’ personal opinions and do not in any way reflect InvestingNote’s official opinion. InvestingNote does not issue a buy or sell recommendation on any security, and any research paper published by The Signal Blog is purely for informative purposes. This research is based on current public information, but we do not represent it is accurate or complete, and it should not be relied on as such. The information, opinions, estimates and forecasts contained herein are as of the date hereof and are subject to change without prior notification. It does not constitute a personal recommendation or take into account the particular investment objectives, financial situations, or needs of individual InvestingNote users. InvestingNote users should consider whether the information in this research is reliable, and suitable for their particular circumstances and, if appropriate, seek professional advice. The price and value of investments referred to in this research and the investment income from them may fluctuate. Past performance is not a guide to future performance, future returns are not guaranteed, and a loss of original capital may occur. Fluctuations in exchange rates could have adverse effects on the value or price of, or income derived from, certain investments.

Free Investing e-Books For Investors!

Free Investing e-Books For Investors!

Free-Books To Level Up Your Investing Knowledge

We know that there are very good content being discussed in our platform, but at times, it can sink to the bottom of the Feed over time. Hence, we’ve compiled the best and timeless works written by our community members in InvestingNote, and made them into a beautiful e-Book series.
There’s a total of 5 volumes, each with a different theme, encompassing the respective views of different authors. These e-Books were created with permission of the respective community members.

investingnote ebook investing finance stocks investments

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Top SGX Stocks Every Investor Needs To Know in 2017

Top SGX Stocks Every Investor Needs To Know in 2017

Our Singapore stock exchange (SGX) offers more than 700 stocks in total.

The Singapore Stock Exchange, SGX

These 700+ Singapore stocks consist of blue chips, dividend stocks, growth stocks, value stocks, penny stocks etc. So, where do investors start from?

Some of the key screening criterias investors use to categorise stocks include dividend yield, price to earning (P/E) ratio, sharebuy back and more.

Here, we’ve compiled a top SGX stock list (non-exhaustive) according the various criterias for your reference.

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Contrarian Investing Part 2: Lessons from Templeton

Contrarian Investing Part 2: Lessons from Templeton

Stock Picking Strategy Series: Contrarian Investing Part 2: Lessons from Templeton

If you like this column on contrarian investing and applying to stock analysis, please start voting which stocks you would like them to write on in their next article! This is your chance to interact with them and they will write on the most voted stock of your choice!

How to vote: Comment any of the 4 listed stocks of your choice mentioned in the article (M1, Comfort Delgro, SPH, SIA Engineering). The most number of likes/comments by Monday morning will be chosen. It’s that simple!

Voting starts now and ends on Monday (31st July) when market opens (9am)!


Disclaimer: this article simply provided analysis on stocks from the fundamental perspective, it does not represent any buy/sell recommendation from Investingnote. *All the dollar unit ($) in this article refer to SGD.

This column is written by @j_chou.
–Jay has an interest in global macro trends, financial markets and equity research and enjoys applying a combination of the three in his investments. His eventual investing goal is to manage a risk parity portfolio and achieve true financial freedom.

With S&P 500 and NASDAQ closing at record highs today and VIX Index at a 23-year low, the timing seems ripe to revisit the contrarian approach!

Besides Dremen, another famous investor whom we can learn the contrarian approach from is Sir John Templeton.

Known for his acumen in global stock-picking, Templeton’s principles of purchasing at “maximum pessimism” pushed him towards stocks that had been entirely neglected. His story of profiting off the Great Depression is legendary: in 1939, he purchased $100 worth of every stock which was trading below $1 per share on the New York and American stock exchanges. This totalled about 104 different companies, a whopping 34 of which were bankrupt, and Templeton’s initial investment was $10,400. After four years, he managed to sell those shares for nearly four times the money he had initially invested. His genius proved to be timeless, as yet again in 1999 during the dot com bubble he famously predicted that 90% of the new Internet companies would be bankrupt within five years, and he very publicly shorted the U.S. tech sector.

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Contrarian Investing: Dreman’s Philosophy & Strategy

Contrarian Investing: Dreman’s Philosophy & Strategy

Dreman’s Contrarianism: Investment Philosophy and Strategy Part 1

David Dreman is the chairman of Dreman Value Management Inc. and his Dreman’s High Return Fund is one of the all-time highest returning mutual funds in the USA since its introduction in 1988. He is widely knowns for his iconic contrarian investment strategy and has authored a few books that revolves around this theme, including the investing classic and bestseller “Contrarian Investment Strategy: The Psychology of Stock Market Success(1980)”.

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