But first, what exactly is a corporate action? And why does it matter?
According to Investopedia,
A corporate action is any activity that brings material change to an organization and impacts its stakeholders, including shareholders, both common and preferred, as well as bondholders.
Photo: Hyflux AGM
Corporate actions includes:
Stock Split and reverse split (consolidation)
Mergers and Acquisitions
Corporate actions are important source of indicators for the retail investors to monitor the company’s direction and effectively, the share price. There are some rules that investors and traders have to take note of, according to Li Guang Sheng (a top tier remisier and veteran community member):
Officers and employees of the Company two weeks before the announcement of the Company’s financial results for the first three quarters and one month prior to the announcement of the full year results (“Black-out Period”). Usually there will be internal memo to notify and remind all Directors, officers and employees of the Company on compliance with the best practices on dealing in securities pursuant to Listing Rule 1207(19)(c), in not dealing with the Company’s securities during the Black-out Period. The Company, its Directors and officers should be aware that the Company should not deal in its own securities (including undertaking any share repurchases) during the Black-out Period. Therefore, the Company would wish to complied with the Listing Rule 1207(19)(c) and not run foul with SGX.
If the players of the company shares belong to insiders, then during this period there may be less buyers and harder for you to run or sell your shares. Also if the company is undergoing share buyback and supporting the share prices through daily share buy back, the price may tank during the 2 weeks of no buying from the company or 4 weeks if it is the full year listing result period. So for those who trade heavy, be prepared to reduce your position 2 weeks prior to quarter result announcement due to less liquidity.
Also take note on listed company share buy back rules,
a) on-market purchases should not exceed 5% above the average closing market prices of the share over the last five market days;
b) details of purchases to be released to the SGX-ST, if it is non-market purchases, by 9am on the next market day, or, if an off-market acquisition, by 9am on the second market day after the close of acceptance.
Watch this quick video of Guang Sheng where he explains why corporate actions are so important:
If you don’t already know, Astrea IV is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Azalea Asset Management Pte. Ltd, which is indirectly wholly owned by Temasek Holdings.
Bonds have traditionally been viewed as less volatile investments, paying out regular income over a fixed period of time. This characteristic also makes them a useful investment for retirees to continue receiving visible cash flows for their daily living requirements. Of course, investors who prefer less uncertainty in price fluctuation will also be drawn to bond investments.
In fact, earlier this month, Temasek Holdings CEO Ho Ching described the upcoming Astrea IV PE Bonds as a good “way to grow (our) retirement nest egg”. Unlike most bonds, the Astrea IV PE Bonds will be the first-of-its-kind allowing retail investors to access the private equity investment class that is usually exclusive to high net worth individuals, large financial institutions and funds. Here is a short run down of the description of the Astrea IV PE Bond.
THE Azalea Group, a Temasek unit specialising in investments in private equity, has launched its first PE-backed bond for retail investors, with a smaller-than-expected retail tranche of S$121 million according to Straits Times.
The retail tranche of Class A-1 bonds carries an interest rate of 4.35 per cent. Retail investors may subscribe via ATM with a minimum investment of S$2,000.…
Top 11 Things Every Investor Must Know (before they really start stock investing).
Just to provide some context on why we decided to create this infographic; over the weekend, we attended the SGX’s My First Stock Carnival, held at Vivocity. This carnival was attended by many people who’re interested to start their investing journey.
This is a carnival meant for helping both the young and old to get started on investing in their first stock.
We also presented on how Fintech can help speed up the learning journey of a budding investor. Most investors do fundamental analysis (FA) for their stock selection criteria. There’s also global macro analysis which is essential in letting investors know about the overall sentiments of the stock market.
So, to help more people to increase their financial and investment literacy, we’ve created an infographic about the Top 11 Things Every Investor Must Know (before they start stock investing). …
Market Depth (MD), also known as Level 2 Market Data displays the number of Buy orders and Sell orders of each price level of a particular listed security (eg. stocks or ETFs), up to 20 levels of pending orders on each Buy and Sell side. In simple terms, it shows the different price levels which buyers are willing to buy and sellers willing to sell at any given time where buyers are represented on the left and sellers represented on the right in the order book. MD is in real time and the orders shown changes constantly during pre-open session to market close.
MD information is available on all trading platforms upon subscription with your broker and it allows investors and traders to enhance trading decisions by checking stock liquidity, optimising buy / sell orders, and establishing price support / resistance.
All listed companies on SGX are mandated to report their financial performance periodically. Every quarter, companies must report their financial performance using a structured set of 3 financial statements. The financial statements adhere to international accounting standards and the local Singapore reporting standards have very similar formats making it easy for investors to review.
We decided contribute to the InvestingNote community with an educational piece to demystify the 3 financial statements.
When read with begin with A…B…C…, when we sing with begin with Do… Re…Me…
That at least how the song lyrics go.
But when we want to understand and assess the financials of a stock, we need to begin with the 3 financial statements, namely:
Balance Sheet (or Statement of Financial Position)
Income Statement (or Profit/Loss Statement)
Cash Flow Statement
Financial statements are reported based on time periods. By reviewing the 3 financial statements, investors are able to deduce the financial position of the business and how its financials have changed over time. …
This weekend, I will be sharing my thoughts on catching falling knife blue chips like M1, Star Hub, SPH and Raffles Medical Group. Usually, for stocks that fall so much within a short period, there is a reason and usually is due to change in fundamentals such as profit, growth or potential future earnings look bleak. In my opinion, if a retail investor who hates to see paper losses should wait a bit more before burning their cash as analyst reports are usually negative on them hence funds are selling. There is no point in catching a falling knife for them as there is a possibility of further pain in such shares. Is better in my opinion for such retail investors to chase high and buy when fundamental improve than to bottom fish. There is no one size fits all investment strategy for all. For me, I prefer to bottom fish as there is more upside potential but the risk is paper losses in some counters when they continue to fall. …
This ebook, 9 To 5 Investing Handbook: How You Can Build A Million Dollar Portfolio From The Comfort Of Your 9-5 Job is specially created for busy working professionals who want to learn quick and simple strategies of how to invest successfully. …
Bitcoin: The world’s most famous and fastest-rising crypto-currency.
Just a few weeks ago, when China made the news by publicly announcing that Initial Coin Offerings (ICOs) are banned, Bitcoin’s price plunged more than 10%.
However, the price reaction to this news is nothing compared to the bull run since Bitcoin’s inception.
So, what is Bitcoin really?
Bitcoin (BTC) is a type of cryptocurrency: Balances are kept using public and private “keys,” which are long strings of numbers and letters linked through the mathematical encryption algorithm that was used to create them. BTC was created by someone known by the pseudonym, Satoshi Nakamoto.
BTC uses ‘blockchain’ technology to facilitate instant payments and it really isn’t a physical coin.
1. What is Blockchain?
All Bitcoin transactions are recorded permanently on a distributed ledger called the “blockchain”. This ledger is then shared between all full Bitcoin “miners” and “nodes” around the world, and is publicly-viewable.
These miners and nodes verify transactions and keep the network secure. For the electricity they use to do this, miners are rewarded with new bitcoins with each 10-minute block (the reward is currently 12.5 BTC per block).
As blockchain technology allows digital information to be distributed but not copied, it created the backbone of a new type of internet.
Bitcoin follows the concepts set out in a white paper by Satoshi Nakamoto. It brings forth the possibility of lower transaction fees than traditional online payment mechanisms and is operated by a decentralized authority, unlike government-issued currencies.
The market cap for all bitcoin (abbreviated BTC or, less frequently, XBT) in circulation exceeds $7 billion today.
2. How do Bitcoins come about?
The independent individuals and companies who own the governing computing power and participate in the Bitcoin network, also known as “miners,” are motivated by rewards (the release of new bitcoin) and transaction fees paid in bitcoin.
Bitcoin mining is the processing of transactions on the Bitcoin network and securing them into the blockchain. Each set of transactions that are processed is a block. The block is secured by the miners. Miners do this by creating a hash that is created from the transactions in the block. This cryptographic hash is then added to the block. The next block of transactions will look to the previous block’s hash to verify it is legitimate. Then your miner will attempt to create a new block that contains current transactions and new hash before anyone else’s miner can do so.
These miners can be thought of as the decentralized authority enforcing the credibility of the Bitcoin network. New bitcoin is being released to the miners at a fixed, but periodically declining rate, such that the total supply of bitcoins approaches 21 million.
One bitcoin is divisible to eight decimal places (100 millionth of one bitcoin), and this smallest unit is referred to as a Satoshi. If necessary, and if the participating miners accept the change, Bitcoin could eventually be made divisible to even more decimal places.
3. Why Bitcoin (for some people)?
Bitcoin is a P2P Electronic Cash System and also a consensus network that enables a new payment system and a completely digitized money. It is the first decentralized P2P payment network that is powered by its users with no central authority or middlemen.
The beauty of Bitcoin is that it requires no central servers or third-party clearing houses to settle transactions – all payments are peer-to-peer and are settled in about 10 minutes – unlike credit card payments, which can take weeks or months before they’re finally settled.
So the key reasons why people use Bitcoin is simply because, it’s fast, cheap, safe and cannot be inflated.
Once bitcoins have been sent, they’re gone. A person who has sent bitcoins cannot try to retrieve them without the recipient’s consent. This makes it difficult to commit credit card identity fraud, in which people make a purchase and then contact the credit card company to make a chargeback, effectively reversing the transaction.
As most online purchases today are made via credit cards, online forms require people to enter all the confidential information into a web form. These details can easily be stolen.
The problem with regular fiat currency is that governments can print as much of it as they like, and they frequently do. If there are not enough US dollars to pay off the national debt, then the Federal Reserve can simply print more. If the economy is sputtering, then the government can take newly created money and inject it into the economy, via a much-publicised process known as quantitative easing. This causes the value of a currency to decrease.
Going Deeper Into The Subject….
Bitcoin is a relatively private currency. Although it is transparent – thanks to the blockchain, everyone knows how much a particular bitcoin address holds in transactions. They know where those transactions came from, and where they’re sent.
On the other hand, unlike conventional bank accounts, no one knows who holds a particular BTC address. It’s like having a clear plastic wallet with no visible owner. Everyone can look inside it, but no one knows whose it is. However, it’s worth pointing out that people who use bitcoin unwisely (such as always using the same bitcoin address, or combining coins from multiple addresses into a single address) risk making it easier to identify them online.
In a conventional banking system, different parties such as the bank, the payment processor and the merchant to handle your money properly along the way. They demand important, confidential pieces of information. Because bitcoin is entirely decentralized, no trust is needed in these parties. Each transaction is digitally signed and secure. An unknown miner will verify it, and then the transaction is completed. A payer’s identity is kept anonymous to the merchant.
There is no other electronic cash system in which your account isn’t owned by someone else. Take PayPal, for example: if the company decides for some reason that your account has been misused, it has the power to freeze all of the assets held in the account, without consulting you. It is then up to consumers to jump through whatever hoops are necessary to get it cleared, so that you can access your funds. With bitcoin, you own the private key and the corresponding public key that makes up a bitcoin address. No one can take that away from you (unless you lose it yourself, or host it with a web-based wallet service that loses it for you).
4. Is using Bitcoin as a currency viable?
Due to its volatile price fluctuations, Bitcoin is not suitable to be a currency. Unlike currencies like USD which is pegged to gold or silver, Bitcoin exists without a stable value. It is acting more like a commodity asset that can be traded, like gold or silver. Bitcoin buyers hope that its value will rise in order to yield a trading profit. The price of Bitcoin is purely controlled by supply and demand forces.
Imagine the scenario you were to use Bitcoin for your daily transactions. A simple cup of coffee or groceries could cost 10% more in just a single day due to price volatility.
5. Should you be investing in Bitcoin?
With high returns, come high risks.
Although bitcoin had a more than 100% return on investment in 2016, it’s also five times more volatile than the S&P 500. – As quoted by Campbell Harvey, a professor of finance at Duke University.
As a result of purely demand and supply forces, BTC buyers are actually speculators. Speculation exists in all markets, as the actions of speculators help to add market liquidity and to determine the market value of assets.
Value investing is about buying good companies at low prices. Without a strong fundamental basis for justifying its price, many value investors are likely to shun away from BTC as speculations is the key to its price increase.
Bitcoin is not a company and nobody know whether it is cheap. Although its fans will argue that the blockchain technology backing it will be the next phase of change in the financial world, nobody really knows the exact potential or feasibility that blockchain or Bitcoin has.
Therefore, it’s safe to say its price really is inflated but not exactly safe to invest.
The question investors should ask is: where is the real value?
If you like this article, we’ve got more. Here’s an invitation to join our community and network of investors who’re actively sharing. It’s free and most importantly, these investors are out to help one another to get better investing outcomes.
All research reports are of the analysts’ personal opinions and do not in any way reflect InvestingNote’s official opinion. InvestingNote does not issue a buy or sell recommendation on any security, and any research paper published by The Signal Blog is purely for informative purposes. This research is based on current public information, but we do not represent it is accurate or complete, and it should not be relied on as such. The information, opinions, estimates and forecasts contained herein are as of the date hereof and are subject to change without prior notification. It does not constitute a personal recommendation or take into account the particular investment objectives, financial situations, or needs of individual InvestingNote users. InvestingNote users should consider whether the information in this research is reliable, and suitable for their particular circumstances and, if appropriate, seek professional advice. The price and value of investments referred to in this research and the investment income from them may fluctuate. Past performance is not a guide to future performance, future returns are not guaranteed, and a loss of original capital may occur. Fluctuations in exchange rates could have adverse effects on the value or price of, or income derived from, certain investments.
We know that there are very good content being discussed in our platform, but at times, it can sink to the bottom of the Feed over time. Hence, we’ve compiled the best and timeless works written by our community members in InvestingNote, and made them into a beautiful e-Book series.
There’s a total of 5 volumes, each with a different theme, encompassing the respective views of different authors. These e-Books were created with permission of the respective community members.